Python, super(), and multiple inheritance

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The Situation

There's been a lot of discussion back when Python first introduced the MRO and super() about how it works and how to use it while avoiding some potentially unexpected behavior. At this point, the general consensus seems to be that super() has some advantages and some disadvantages, and whether or not to use it is up to the user and/or the problem that needs to be solved. Python's Super Considered Harmful and Python's super() considered super! are the two articles that come up most often in such discussions. But it seems to me that Python is really doing doing something potentially revolutionary in object-oriented programming that no one has realized yet.

First, I'll assume the reader is familiar with what Python's MRO (method resolution order) is and how it works, as well as how super() works, but I'll summarize it here because, what the heck. The order in which super() (which naturally delegates calls to superclasses) resolves method calls is decided by the MRO. The MRO for single inheritance classes is straightforward, but it gets a little messy with multiple inheritance; Python uses C3 Linearization to calculate the MRO. For simple scenarios, it's fine to assume a depth-first left-to-right expansions, with duplicate classes being removed save for the last instance.

Proposed Solutions

The two commonly agreed-upon rules (from the second article above) is that if you use super(), you need to

This allows multiple inheritance to be used somewhat like pluggable classes (not a technical term) in the inheritance hierarchy; superclasses provide a single extra functionality and passes it on to the next, along with a hunk of keyword arguments. You can certainly get by taking this approach when using super(), but I think it is ignoring a large part of super()'s versatility.

The Problem

Allow me to illustrate using the classic ABCD diamond.

 / \
B   C
 \ /

Here we have the MRO's

A: [A, object]
# A inherits from object (object is Python's base class)
B(A): [B, A, object]
# B inherits from A, A inherits from object
C(A): [C, A, object]
# C inherits from A, A inherits from object
D(B, C): [D, B, C, A, object]
# D inherits from B, B inherits from C, C inherits from A, A inherits from object

Anyone with some degree of familiarity with OOP should immediately see an issue with that last one.

D(B, C): [D, B, C, A, object]
# D inherits from B, B inherits from C, C inherits from A, A inherits from object
D(C, B): [D, C, B, A, object]
# D inherits from C, C inherits from B, B inherits from A, A inherits from object

Oh, god. What's happening?

The problem is that we're approaching this with the mindset of multiple inheritance OOP, but in fact, in this scheme, there isn't actually any multiple inheritance going on. Both D(B, C) and D(C, B) in fact have simple single inheritance paths. What's going on is "dynamic class composition". That is, Python allows the programmer to compose classes however they like into a inheritance path for any given class. The flexibility and versatility this offers is huge, but, you say after picking up your jaw, how can we structure this into something we can use without losing our sanity? After all, if B inherits from/delegates super() calls to both A and C, depending on which subclass we're using, how to we keep all everything consistent? We need some usage standard. Raymond's advice above is very well and good, but I propose the following scheme to maximize the potential of Python's super().

Another Solution

Classes can be split into roughly three types: base classes, open transitive classes, and closed transitive classes.

(For this article I will be using only __init__() as an example, but the classes I describe here can be determined independently for each method/attribute, e.g. A can be base class for __init__() but open transitive for do_something(). Usually we will define abstract classes, e.g. InterfaceA has __init__() and do_something(), and we say A is base class for InterfaceA)

Base classes are classes that do not call super(). They serve as a cutoff in the MRO; subsequent classes do not matter, as the methods of subsequent classes will not get called. Generally, these will be found at the end of the MRO, just before object.

A()  # A is a base class

Closed transitive classes resemble traditional subclasses; they may only subclass a certain class or abstract class/interface type.

A(B)  # A is closed transitive B

Open transitive classes resemble what Raymond describes in his article, classes which take their arguments and pass everything else along to the next class in the MRO. These can generally be put anywhere in the MRO before base classes and closed transitive classes, although it's possible to have closed transitive classes that accept an open transitive class after them.

A(*)  # A is open transitive

Take, for example

from abc import *

class Rect:
    def __init__(self, w, h):
        self.w = w
        self.h = h

class SpecialRect(Rect, metaclass=ABCMeta):
    def __init__(self, s):

class Square(Rect):
    def __init__(self, s):
        super().__init__(s, s)

class Long(Rect):
    def __init__(self, s):
        super().__init__(s, 2s)

class Foo(Square, Long):
    def __init__(self):

class Position:
    def __init__(self, x, y, *args, **kwargs):
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

class PosRect(Position, Rect):
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        super().__init__(x, y, w, h)

class PosSquare(Position, Square):
    def __init__(self, x, y, s):
        super().__init__(x, y, s)

class PosSquareA(Square, PosRect):
    def __init__(self, x, y, s):
        super().__init__(x, y, s)  # TypeError

class PosSquareB(Position, Square, PosRect):
    def __init__(self, x, y, s):
        super().__init__(x, y, s)

The class diagrams:

Rect := [Rect(), object()]  # Rect is a base class, so we ignore object's __init__
Square := [Square(Rect), Rect(), object()]  # okay
Long := [Long(Rect), Rect(), object()]  # okay
Foo := [Foo(SpecialRect), Square(Rect), Long(Rect), Rect(), object()]
#                       ^ okay        ^ NOT okay
Position := [Position(*), object()]  # okay
PosRect := [Position(*), Rect(), object()]  # okay
PosSquare := [Position(*), Square(Rect), Rect(), object()]  # okay
PosSquareA := [Square(Rect), PosRect(Rect), Position(*), Rect(), object()]
#                          ^ NOT okay
PosSquareB := [Position(*), Square(Rect), PosRect(Rect), Rect(), object()]
#                                       ^ still NOT okay

So we can clearly see the chain of delegation and functionality. Using this model, we can build a different class structure, but it requires a slightly different mentality from traditional OOP.

Phew, I've run out of steam. Hopefully the above example gives an idea of what is possible with Python's "multiple inheritance"; it becomes very useful when working with large, convoluted class trees, such as in video games, but I'm too tired to come up with an example at the moment.